A pilot study on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment in critically ill patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam
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AuthorsJirina Martinkova, Manu L.N.G. Malbrain, Eduard Havel, Petr Safranek, Jan Bezouska, Milan Kaska
In critically ill patients, multi-trauma and intensive therapy can influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antibiotics with time-dependent bacterial killing. Consequently, PK/PD targets (%fT>MIC) - crucial for antimicrobial effects -may not be attained.
Two patients admitted to the surgical ICU of the University Hospital in Hradec Králove for multiple-trauma were given piperacillin/tazobactam by 1-hour IV infusion 4/0.5 g every 8h. PK variables: total and renal clearance (CLtot, CLR), volume of distribution (Vd), and elimination half-life (T1/2) were calculated, followed by glomerular filtration rate (MDRD) and cumulative fluid balance (CFB-total fluid volume based on 24-h registered fluid intake minus output). The PK/PD target attainment (100%fT>MIC) was defined as free (f) piperacillin plasma concentrations that remain, during the entire dosing interval (T), above the minimum inhibitory concentration (100%fT>MIC) within days 4-8 (when CFB culminates and disappears). Piperacillin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and corrected for unbound fraction (22%).
CFB culminated over days 2-5 reaching 15-30 L and was associated with a large Vd (29-42 L). While MDRD in patient 1 was low (0.3-0.4 mL s?¹ 1.7 m?²), that of patient 2 was increasing (> 3.1 mL s?¹ 1.7 m?²), which was associated with augmented CLR. In patient 2, the fT reached only 62, 52, and 44% on days 4, 6, and 8, respectively. In patient 1, the %fT was much higher, attaining values four to fivefold greater than that targeted.
Critically ill patients are at risk of drug under- or overdosing without dose up-titration with regard to covariate effects and individual drug pharmacokinetics.