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Despite increasing interest in intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among the critically ill, unanswered questions cloud the understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions:
- Are IAH and ACS synonymous?
- What are the ideal methods of measuring and lowering intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)?
- When should we think of IAH?
- Can IAH be prevented?
- What level of IAP requires abdominal decompression?
Date Published: September 2013
Manu Malbrain, MD, PhD is Director of ICU and High Care Burn Unit, ZNA Stuivenberg, Antwerp. He is an ESICM Chris Stoutenbeek Award winner and the founding President of The World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS).
Jan De Waele
Jan De Waele, MD, PhD is Senior Lecturer at Ghent University and an intensivist at Ghent University Hospital, Ghent. He is Chair of the Clinical Trials Working Group of the WSACS.
Table of Contents
List of abbreviations
Part I. Understanding Intra-Abdominal Hypertension: What to Worry About?:
1. What is intra-abdominal pressure?
3. Principles of IAP measurement
4. Systems available to measure IAP
5. Pitfalls of IAP monitoring
Part II. Underlying Predisposing Conditions: When to Worry?:
6. Decreased abdominal compliance
7. Increased abdominal content
8. Capillary leak and fluid resuscitation
Part III. Specific Conditions: When to Worry More?:
14. Pregnancy and others
Part IV. Consequences of Intra-Abdominal Hypertension: Why to Worry?:
15. Cardiovascular system and IAH
16. Respiratory system and IAH
17. Renal system and IAH
18. Central nervous system and IAH
19. Other organs and IAH
20. How to define gastrointestinal failure?
21. Polycompartment syndromes
Part V. Treatment:
22. Improvement of abdominal wall compliance
23. Evacuation of intra-luminal contents
24. Evacuations of abdominal fluid collections
25. Correction of capillary leaks and fluid balance
26. Specific treatments for intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome
27. Surgical treatment
28. Open abdomen management and temporary abdominal closure
Part VI. The Future:
29. The future of IAH and ACS