Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe haemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension
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AuthorsJuan C. Duchesne, Lewis J. Kaplan, Zsolt J. Balogh, Manu L.N.G. Malbrain
Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome.
The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the ‘deadly triad’ or the ‘bloody vicious cycle’. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing to curtail transcapillary albumin leakage and resulting in increasingly positive net fluid balances. GIPS may represent a third hit after the initial insult and the ischaemia reperfusion injury. Novel markers like the capillary leak index, extravascular lung water and pulmonary permeability index may help the clinician in guiding appropriate fluid management.
Capillary leak is an inflammatory condition with diverse triggers that results from a common pathway that includes ischaemia-reperfusion, toxic oxygen metabolite generation, cell wall and enzyme injury leading to a loss of capillary endothelial barrier function. Fluid overload should be avoided in this setting.