• Privacy GDPR

    Privacy Policy

    The European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) comes into force on May 25th 2018 and has major implications worldwide. European citizens now have multiple digital rights over their personal details, including the right to be asked to provide consent for the storage of personal details in a database, the right to be asked to provide consent to be contacted, the right to see the personal information stored, the right to be forgotten including having all personal details permanently removed from a database, the right to know who this information is shared with (consent is also required for this), and the right to be contacted should a significant data breach occur. All of these changes must be prospectively acknowledged by the user and cannot be presumed to have occurred. The proof rests with the websites to be able to demonstrate consent has been obtained. It is likely almost all websites in the world will move to this model, unless they wish to limit access to European citizens, which would be difficult technically. Fines for non-compliance with this can reach €20 million. As a result, we have updated our privacy policy accordingly. We took as example the updated privacy policy of Critical Care Reviews, a sister website providing FOAM content...

  • 7th IFAD 2018

    FIRST BATCH OF EARLY BIRD ONLINE REGISTRATIONS SOON OPEN

    November 23rd 2018
    Congress Centre "Pakhuis De Zwijger", Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    We are very pleased to announce the 7th International Fluid Academy Day, which will take place on November 23rd 2018 at Pakhuis De Zwijger in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The aim of this seventh edition is again to review recent advances in fluid management, and hemodynamic and organ function monitoring in the critical care setting in a comprehensive manner for intensivists, anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians as well as interested internists and surgeons. However the meeting will deal with any broad topic related to critical care. As always it is also a great way to promote professional interaction between faculty members, participants and delegates of the industry. This website is regularly updated. Last modification by Adminstrator (Manu Malbrain) on February 7th at 10:00 AM.

  • About iFAD

    The iFAD started as local initiative form the pharmaceutical working group on fluids from the Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen (www.zna.be). Today iFAD is integrated within the not-for-profit charitable organization iMERiT, International Medical Education and Research Initiative, under Belgian law and as such the iFAD Organising Committee strongly recognizes and values a constructive partnership with the industry.

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  • Brand new website!

    The IFAD website content is based on the philosophy of FOAM (Free Open Access Medical education – #FOAMed). The organising committee gives their time freely and receives no financial benefit. This in part explains the wonderful passions for philanthropy, sharing, education and innovation that make the IFAD unique.

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    verify here.

  • Free Open Access Medical Education and Member Benefits

    The International Fluid Academy adheres to the FOAM principles for all website visitors: FREE Open Access Medical Education (#FOAMed #FOAMcc #FOAMus).

    This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
    verify here.

     

     

    We are very pleased to announce the 7th International Fluid Academy Day, which will take place on November 23rd 2018 at Pakhuis De Zwijger in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The aim of this seventh edition is again to review recent advances in fluid management, and hemodynamic and organ function monitoring in the critical care setting in a comprehensive manner for intensivists, anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians as well as interested internists and surgeons. However the meeting will deal with any broad topic related to critical care. As always it is also a great way to promote professional interaction between faculty members, participants and delegates of the industry.

    Read more

EFSUMB Course Book

EFSUMB Course Book

Chapter 01 - Basic Physical Principles of medical ultrasound

EFSUMB: The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology

Medical ultrasound
is based on the use of high-frequency sound to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Ultrasound frequencies range from 2 to approximately 15 MHz, although even higher frequencies may be used in some situations.

The ultrasound beam originates from mechanical oscillations of numerous crystals in a transducer, which is excited by electrical pulses (piezoelectric effect). The transducer converts one type of energy into another (electrical <--> mechanical/sound). 

The ultrasound waves (pulses of sound) are sent from the transducer, propagate through different tissues, and then return to the transducer as reflected echoes. The returned echoes are converted back into electrical impulses by the transducer crystals and are further processed to form the ultrasound image presented on the screen.

Ultrasound transducers contain a range of ultrasound frequencies, termed bandwidth. For example, 2.5-3.5 MHz for general abdominal imaging and 5.0-7.5 MHz for superficial imaging.

Ultrasound waves are reflected at the surfaces between the tissues of different density, the reflection being proportional to the difference in impedance. If the difference in density is increased, the proportion of reflected sound is increased, and the proportion of transmitted sound is proportionately decreased.

If the difference in tissue density is very different, then the sound is completely reflected, resulting in total acoustic shadowing. Acoustic shadowing is present behind bones, calculi (stones in kidneys, gallbladder, etc.) and air (intestinal gas).

Echoes are not produced if there is no difference in a tissue or between tissues. Homogenous fluids like blood, bile, urine, contents of simple cysts, ascites and pleural effusion are seen as echo-free structures.

The EFSUMB provides excellent #FOAMed #FOAMcc #FOAMus #POCUS information on medical ultrasound. Below you can find a link to the original EFSUMB webpage to view and download different chapter on medical ultrasound.

Chapter 01 - Basic Physical Principles of medical ultrasound [Postema M, Kotopoulis S, Jenerka K-V]
VIEW - DOWNLOAD & PRINT

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